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lungwort (Pulmonaria)
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Gracillariidae
Feeding starts in a small spiral gallery which soon develops into a blotch, frass linear, upper epidermis brown; often two or three larvae to a mine. Larva eventually turn scarlet and now frass is scattered in mine [7-9] Dialectica imperialella 311
N.B. Mines with blackish discoloration of the upper epidermis are caused by flies.

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