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Hydromyza livens (Fabricius, 1794)
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initial galleries turn brown

Food Plant: Nuphar lutea (Yellow water-lily) Recorded Elsewhere: Nuphar pumila (Least water-lily), Nymphaea alba (White water-lily)

Egg: laid under the leaf (the fly has to submerge to do this).

Mine: Summer

Notes: The mines converge on the upper part of the petiole and are usually branched. These mines are very visible on the host plant. The larvae then mine and pupate in the petiole. The larvae make different puparia according to the season. Summer puparia are thin skinned and formed in a chamber which penetrates to the upper epidermis. The puparium hangs head down with anchorage by the posterior spiracles. Winter puparia have marked calcium deposits in their wall and stay in the petiole until it rots; they then sink to the bottom, rising again in spring for the fly to emerge.

Data: 12.ix.2021, Squabmoor, East Budleigh Common, South Devon, VC3

Image:© John Day

Hering, E M (1957) - Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa.
Hering, EM (1951) - Biology of the Leaf Miners,35,208
Robbins, J (1990) - A Provisional Atlas of The Leaf Miners of Warwickshire

sponsored by Colin Plant Associates (UK) LLP/Consultant Entomologists