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elm (Ulmus)
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Mine under bark in small branches, giving vein like appearance along branch [possible two year life cycle] Ectoedemia amani 41a
Mine compressed into gut like arcs, larva green[8-9] Stigmella viscerella 95
Frass linear then variable; larvae green, exit hole underside of leaf [8-9] Stigmella ulmivora 80
Frass dispersed, sometimes coiled; larvae yellow, exit hole on top of leaf [7+9-10] Stigmella lemniscella 63
N.B. S. lemniscella can also make mines similar to S. viscerella. To distinguish between these mines the initial S. viserella mine has a zigzag start whereas the mine of S. lemniscella starts with concentric circles. Also the colour of the larvae is different; S. viscerella is green and S. lemniscella yellow.  
Mine a slender gallery with linear frass leaving clear margins; there are two to four frass free projections from gallery which end abruptly. After leaving mine larva eats out windows from underside of leaf [7-9] Bucculatrix albedinella 271
Mine contorted at start filled with black frass, may double back on itself forming a small blotch. Mine then straightens, often along vein, finally turning away at an angle. After leaving mine larva eats out windows from underside [5-7+8-10] …(In Britain, at present it is found only in Surrey) Bucculatrix ulmifoliae 274a
Mine underside of leaf, subcircular, strongly inflated. Larvae yellow, gut green, pupae in a cocoon usually light green and cigar shaped loosely attached to upper epidermis, often becomes loose when mine opened [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter schreberella 352
Mine underside tubular usually between two veins. Larvae pale whitish green, pupae in an olive green cocoon, remains firmly attached to lower epidermis when mine opened [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter tristrigella 356
Mine a long sinuous gallery, often whitish in appearance and often crossing midrib. The egg is laid inside the leaf being injected through the epidermal layer. This feature helps to distinguish it from a Nepticulid mine where the egg is laid on the surface of the leaf [5+7+9-10] Lyonetia clerkella 263

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