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oak (Quercus)
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Eriocraniidae (May to July)
Blotch mine, usually starting from leaf edge, frass black, long inter-twining threads [5-7] Eriocrania subpurpurella 6
Ectoedemia (blotch mines) 
1 Mine on Evergreen Oak (Quercus ilex), highly contorted, November to April. Pupa in a cocoon on upper surface of leaf [11-4] Ectoedemia heringella 36a

Larva mining the green bark of small branches [9?-6]................................................either
(it is not possible to separate the mines of these two species).

Ectoedemia atrifrontella 41
Ectoedemia longicaudella 41b
  Mine forming a slender gallery terminating in a blotch 2
2 Larva mines in green leaves 3
  Larva mines in 'green islands', often in fallen leaves in late October - November; the
early gallery generally follows a vein inwards towards the midrib, or follows the midrib
3 Larva mines August to early September, invariably near leaf edge forming a blotch with two frass lines; larva green. So far only found in Devon [8-9] Ectoedemia heckfordi 35a
  Larva mines from late August till early October; the early gallery generally follows a vein outwards from the midrib forming a blotch; larva white with very pale brown head [8-9] Ectoedemia albifasciella 37
 4 Blotch with a slit in the lower leaf epidermis, allowing some of the frass to fall out;
larva head dark brown [10-11]
Ectoedemia subbimaculella 38
  Blotch without a slit in the epidermis; larva head red-brown [10-11] Ectoedemia heringi 39
  Gallery highly contorted, occupying a small area, forming a false blotch; larva with dark
ventral spots, feeding in a 'green island' often in fallen leaves in November [10-11]
Ectoedemia quinquella 36
Stigmella (gallery mines)
1 Mine on Evergreen species 2
  Mine on Deciduous species 3
2 Mine with a broad irregular gallery with a wide line of dark frass leaving narrow clear margins, larvae yellow [7-8+11-4] Stigmella suberivora 85
  Mine sinuous in regular curves, filled with coiled greenish frass difficult to see when fresh (frass turns brown with age); larvae green [6-7+9-10] Stigmella basiguttella 89
3 Egg on underside 4
  Egg on upperside usually away from margin 4
  Egg on upperside near margin, frass black [6-7+9-10] Stigmella ruficapitella 84
4 Mine sinuous in regular curves, filled with coiled greenish frass difficult to see when
fresh (frass turns brown with age); larvae green [6-7+9-10]
Stigmella basiguttella 89
  Mine irregular; frass leaving clear margins, blackish; larvae yellow 5
5 Frass dispersed in separated grains in middle part of course 6
  Frass forming a more or less continuous central line 7
6 Egg laid beside a vein; early course of mine leading away from vein more or less at right
angles; mine the largest of the oak feeding Stigmella's univoltine, [7-8
Stigmella svenssoni 87
  Egg anywhere on leaf; early course variable; mine about the same size as that of
Stigmella ruficapitella, frass more or less dispersed until last quarter of mine when it forms a thin central line; bivoltine, [6-7+9-10]
Stigmella samiatella 88
7 Mine relatively short and broad; frass at first in a narrow central line becoming dispersed in second half of mine; larva with dark sclerite plates on the prothorax [6-7+9-11] Stigmella atricapitella 83
  Mine long and narrow; frass forming a fine central line; larva with light brown head without sclerites plates [6-7+10-11] Stigmella roborella 86

N.B. In the autumn all Stigmella mines are difficult to determine with the exception of S. basiguttella. If care is taken it should be possible to determine tenanted mines so long as the features mentioned in the key are adhered to.

  Mine a flat whitish blotch on the top of a leaf, occasionally several mines can be found on one leaf. The mine is free of frass, which is ejected through a slit at the edge of the mine. The mine is lined with silk [9-4] Tischeria ekebladella 123
Mine a flat brownish blotch on top of a leaf with darker concentric rings on the upper
surface of the leaf. No frass in mine which is ejected through a slit. The mine is lined with silk [9
Tischeria dodonaea 124
Mine starts in twig proceeding into base of leaf via petiole. When almost fully fed it cuts out an oval hole in the base of the leaf measuring 4 x 2mm to 5 x 3mm. Occasionally two larvae mine the same twig resulting in a hole being cut out from either side of the leaf [6-7]
Heliozela sericiella 154
Mine short, often contorted close to midrib, frass black. After leaving mine larva eats out windows from underside of leaf [7+9-10] Bucculatrix ulmella 274
1 Mine with epidermal gallery on underside leading to a subquadrate blotch about 5mm across (triangular if in angle of veins); larva feeds later in a cone on the leaf-margin 2
  Mine formed otherwise 3
2 Univoltine; mine occupied July - August, cone September - October Caloptilia alchimiella 286
  Bivoltine; mine occupied May and August, cone June and September - October * Caloptilia robustella 287
   *N.B. The second generation cones of C. robustella are indistinguishable from those of C. alchimiella.
3 Mine upperside, large and covering most of leaf 4
  Mine underside 5
4 Upper epidermis detached from parenchyma and silvery; mine slightly inflated [6] Acrocercops brongniardella 313
  Mine otherwise Hymenoptera spp.
5 Larva mines only when young, feeding later in a cone on the leaf margin [6-9] Caloptilia leucapennella 292
  Larva mines throughout  6
6 Mine on Evergreen Oak (Quercus ilex)[3-4+7+10] Phyllonorycter messaniella 321
  Mine on deciduous species 7
7 Mine appearing to have no creases in lower epidermis 8
  Mine with visible creases in lower epidermis 10
8 Mine less than 10mm long, usually in lobe or on edge of leaf (Autumn generation only)
Phyllonorycter heegeriella 317
  Mine more than 17mm long 9
9 Pupa in cocoon attached to central green patch in the upper epidermis; mine 17-20mm long, strongly contorting leaf [7-8] Phyllonorycter roboris 316
  Pupa without a cocoon, but in a silken web; mine 22-28mm long, often several in one leaf causing leaf to distort considerably [7-9] Phyllonorycter distentella 346
10 Lower epidermis with numerous small creases 11
  Lower epidermis with a least one large crease 12
11 Very small mine usually in lobe or on edge of leaf, cocoon occupying most of mine
(autumn generation only) [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter heegeriella 317
  Mine underside, small, usually on margin when leaf-edge folds right over almost concealing mine, preferring high branches; pupa in flimsy, lace like cocoon [7+9-11] Phyllonorycter kuhlweiniella 319
12 Cocoon incorporating no frass 13
  Cocoon incorporating frass 14
13 13 Mine less than 14mm long; cocoon attached to both upper and lower epidermis
(summer generation only) [6-7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter harrisella 315
  Mine more than 20mm long, almost always between veins extending from midrib, often
several mines in a leaf [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter lautella 351
14 Mine 11mm or more long 15
  Mine 10mm or less long, cocoon attached to both upper and lower epidermis (summer
generation only [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter heegeriella 317
15 Cocoon attached to upper epidermis only 16
  Cocoon attached to both upper and lower epidermis 17
16 Cocoon completely covered in frass (summer generation only); mine irregular in shape
positioned anywhere on leaf [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter quercifoliella 320
  Cocoon only lined with frass; a long mine between two veins and extending from
midrib [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter muelleriella 322
17 Cocoon flimsy and only loosely attached to the upper epidermis, usually lined with only a little frass [3-4+7+10] Phyllonorycter messaniella 321
  Cocoon strong with frass edging giving a distinct U or V shape 18
18 Mine with small patch of uneaten parenchyma on the upper leaf epidermis to which the cocoon is firmly attached (autumn generation only) [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter quercifoliella 320
  Mine with a patch of parenchyma on upper epidermis usually left uneaten, frass either deposited on each side of pupa or pupa completely covered [6-7+9-10] Phyllonorycter harrisella 315
   At present it is almost impossible to distinguish between several of the autumn mines of the oak feeding Phyllonorycters. Those presenting the most problems are Phyllonorycter quercifoliella, P. messaniella and P. heegeriella. However they can usually be determined by examination of the larva or the pupal case. It now appears that those mines that yield P. quercifoliella have the cocoon adhered very firmly to an uneaten patch of green on the upper leaf epidermis. Those yielding P. messaniella have no uneaten parenchyma at all and are only rather loosely attached to the upper epidermis.

A description of the larva is as follows:
P. quercifoliella: Head light brown, body pale whitish green, gut darker green.
P. messaniella: Head brown, body yellow, anterior segments opaque whitish yellow.
P. heegeriella: Head very pale greenish brown, body pale whitish green, gut darker.

P.lautella: Head very pale greenish brown, first anterior segment pale yellow, a yellow spot on the fifth abdominal segment and a blackish spot on eighth abdominal segment.

  Breeding through Phyllonorycters is fairly easy and should be attempted wherever possible to determine the species.
  N.B. Other species of insects also mine oak leaves especially Sawflies.

sponsored by Colin Plant Associates (UK) LLP/Consultant Entomologists