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hawthorn (Crataegus)
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Lyonetiidae
Mine a brown circular blotch with the frass forming darker spiral markings in the centre. Egg laid well away from margin [8-9] Leucoptera malifoliella 260
Mine a long sinuous gallery, often whitish in appearance and often crossing midrib. The egg is laid inside the leaf being injected through the epidermal layer. This feature helps to distinguish it from a Nepticulid mine where the egg is laid on the surface of the leaf [5+7+9-10] Lyonetia clerkella 263
Bucculatricidae  
Mine short contorted, linear black frass, close to a major vein. Later the larva eats out windows from upperside [7-8] Bucculatrix bechsteinella 275
Gracillariidae
1

Creased mine under leaf lower epidermis brown, (c. 6mm long) later edge of leaf turned under & silk visible, often both stages of mine on same leaf [7+8-9]

Parornix anglicella 303
  Creased mine under leaf lower epidermis green (c. 9mm long) [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae 323
  Blister on top of leaf 2
2 Blister anywhere on upper surface of leaf, flecked with blackish frass [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter corylifoliella 332
  Blister over midrib, silvery [7+10-4] Phyllonorycter leucographella 332a
Nepticulidae
Bradley No
Name
Position of egg
Mine
Larva
82
Stigmella paradoxa Underside - about 1mm form tip of lobe A more or less circular blotch, with frass in a black central mass [7+10-4] Greenish white; head dark brown.
79
Stigmella perpygmaeella. Usually on top beside the midrib. Difficult to find. Gallery slender; broken linear frass following rib or leaf margin usually reverses direction; may go down petiole. Makes a false blotch, compact frass near the beginning of blotch, may be coiled [7+10] Pale yellow, head brown
100
Stigmella oxyacanthella Underside, usually close to a rib. Long slender gallery following rib or leaf margin with linear frass sometimes going down petiole. Mine becomes broad filled with coiled reddish frass. Mine long, not forming blotch, but often making hairpin bends [9-10] Bright green, head pale brown to dark grey.
108
Stigmella crataegella Underside, usually near midrib at base of leaf. Mine starts slender with linear frass, usually following rib or leaf margin or along petiole. Gallery broadens abruptly with now coiled frass filling the gallery, before finishing with a central line. Gallery doubles back on itself forming a false blotch [6-8] Bright green, head green.
99
Stigmella hybnerella Almost always underside beside a vein away from the margin. Starts as a slender more or less direct gallery, with black linear frass and narrow clear margins. Larva now changes to blotch feeding, usually near leaf margin [5-6+8-9] Whitish with faint yellow tinge, head brown
107
Stigmella regiella Underside near margin Narrow gallery with reddish frass following leaf margin often doubles back on itself making a parallel mine before expanding abruptly into a blotch with blackish frass deposited irregularly in the centre. Blotch often absorbing earlier workings. [8-11] Yellow, head pale brown. Cephalic ganglia conspicuous.
29
Ectoedemia atricollis Underside Starts as an erratic gallery zigzagging to and fro in a small area near the egg. The mine then usually follows the leaf margin, filled with frass which leads to a blotch with the frass scattered [8-10] Whitish, head dark brown. Gut dark green or reddish

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