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sallows & willows (Salix)
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Nepticulidae
Early mine in midrib, in leaf for last instar [7-11] Ectoedemia intimella 25
All mine in leaf blade – Sallow [6-7+9-11]
Stigmella salicis 68
All mine in leaf blade - Willows [6-7+9-10] Stigmella obliquella 70
Gracillariidae
1 Mine small, about 8mm, tentiform; larva feeding later in a folded leaf or cone 2
  Mine over 15mm, tentiform ; larva mines throughout 3
  Mine otherwise 9
2 Rare mountain species, larva feeds later in a folded leaf [7-8] Callisto coffeella 310a
  Common widespread species; larva feeds later in a cone [7-9] Caloptilia stigmatella 288
3 Mine on Creeping Willow (Salix repens) [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella 348
  Mine on other willow species 4
4 Mine on smooth-leaved willow species 5
  Mine on rough-leaved willow species 7
5 Mine only on Osier (Salix viminalis); mine long and narrow, often near petiole; pupa naked in mine without a cocoon [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter viminetorum 334
  Mine on various species of smooth-leaved willow 6
6 Mine on Osier, White Willow (Salix alba), Crack Willow (Salix fragilis) and occasionally other species; pupa in a cocoon [6-7+9-10] Phyllonorycter viminiella 333
Mine on underside with crease along lower epidermis, often extending from mid-rib to leaf edge, pupa in a flimsy cocoon with frass piled at opposite end [8-10]…………..316a Phyllonorycter pastorella 316a
7 Cocoon white or yellow and loosely woven [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter salicicolella 335
Cocoon golden or light golden brown and strongly constructed 8
 8 Outline of cocoon visible from outside the mine [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter hilarella 337
Outline of cocoon not or hardly visible from outside the mine [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter dubitella 336
    N.B. Although the above key indicates which species of Phyllonorycter is most likely to be found on a given foodplant it is not conclusive. The characteristics of some mines vary and it is not certain as to the exact variety of willow that some Phyllonorycter species feed on, so to be certain of an identification it may be necessary to breed through to adult.
9 Mine starting in a leaf making an epidermal gallery 10
 

Mine starting in a stem of current year’s growth

11
10 Mine starts as an epidermal gallery on the side the egg was laid, frass in broad central line. Larva then mines petiole and into twig and finally back into leaf. Mine usually ends at leaf margin where larva pupates under a membrane [6+8-9] Phyllocnistis saligna 367
11 Mine along stem, long, up to 30cm. At first greenish ochreous turning white with age, finally ending up in the petiole of a leaf, where a cocoon is spun at the base of the leaf. May have two or three cocoons on a single leaf. Usually on Grey Willow, but has been found on Sallow Phyllocnistis ramulicola 367a
  (New to science in 2006, life cycle uncertain, so far only found in Hampshire, England and Portugal).  
     

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